Below are some concepts and cognitive biases from behavioural science.
See what concepts you can identify - have a guess and then see if you were right
In recent years, psychologists have proposed a theory of dual systems of the mind: System 1 and System 2. The brain is not literally divided like this, but it is a useful analogy.
- System 1 is automatic, quick, intuitive, emotional and reactive.
- System 2 is conscious, effortful, logical, and deliberate.
Anchoring is our tendency to rely too heavily, or "anchor," on one trait or piece of information, often in the immediate context when making decisions.
Heuristics are shortcuts or rules of thumb for decision-making to aid us in finding a quick, satisfactory, but perhaps not always perfect, answer to a complex question. They help us make quicker, cognitively efficient decisions.
Our decisions and preferences are affected by how information is presented to us. How something is framed, or presented, can make different features more or less salient.
We tend to focus on today rather than think about what tomorrow might bring. We discount the future in favour of today. More specifically, it is the human tendency to put more value on rewards that are available now than rewards in the future. Power of now is also known as discounting the future, present bias or time inconsistency.
We have a common tendency to adopt the opinions and
follow the behaviours of the majority.
We have a tendency to make decisions based on their emotions and how they feel about something - a System 1 response - rather than any rational, logical or thought out reasoning.
We often judge the likelihood of an event, or frequency of its occurrence by the ease with which examples and instances come to mind.
Loss aversion is a cognitive bias where we generally feel the pain of a loss more than the pleasure of equal gain. This means that people value more what they already have than what they stand to gain.
We have a natural inclination to categorise, compartmentalise and treat money differently depending on where it comes from, where it is kept, or how it is spent to help us organise, keep track of financial activities and control our spending.
Status quo bias is a preference for the current state of affairs. We often avoid change; and if faced with a choice tend to go-with-the-flow of pre-set options or defaults.
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